Diabetes is a serious medical condition that affects millions of people worldwide. Since its earliest description in 1500 B.C in the Egyptian Ebers papyrus, diabetes has remained a
chronic progressive disease. The disease now affects 500 million people worldwide. The occurrence of diabetes among the elderly has increased 63% in the last 10 years. One of the
most disturbing statistics on diabetes is that so many people are unaware they have this condition. There are two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease in which
the body cannot secrete insulin. Only 10 percent of diabetes cases are of type 1. On the other
hand, Type 2 diabetes is a devious monster where the body produces insulin but ca n’t process
it properly. Though both types involve the body’s inability to process glucose and sugar, they are very different.
Indian foods are muted metabolic time bombs and we are the biggest consumers of sugar in the world. Top that with record sales of chocolates, Indian sweets and namkeens in the name
of festive indulgence and you get 70 million diabetics which are expected to increase to
105 million by 2025. Dietary changes and oral hypoglycemic medications have proven derisory,
while insulin therapy only solves the problem temporarily. Whilst these numbers illustrate
that diabetes will be the global health catastrophe of the next generation, its accurate
pathophysiology has yet to be delineated. Alternative treatments targeting different models
of this disorder necessitate careful and responsible examination. Many studies now reveal
surgery for type 2 diabetes can achieve up to complete disease remission, an objective
almost unheard of in current diabetes care. Data collected over decades of bariatric
surgery exhibits the resilience and effectiveness of diabetes control and even renovate
the insulin machinery in just six months. “Bariatric surgery” is now emerging a field
dedicated to the establishment of surgical procedures specifically aimed at controlling diabetes.
What Is Bariatric Surgery, and How Does It Work?
Gastric bypass and other weight-loss surgeries alter your digestive system to help you lose weight by causing malabsorption of nutrients, or by a combination of both gastric restriction and
malabsorption. There are many types of weight-loss surgery, called collectively as bariatric
surgery. The most common are gastric bypass and sleeve gastrectomy. Many
doctors prefer gastric bypass surgery as it generally has less complications than other
weight-loss surgeries. Today, most types of bariatric surgery are performed laparoscopically,
a minimally invasive technique. These surgeries are done when nutrition and fitness regimes
haven't worked or when you have severe health problems because of overweight. Obesity
surgery or bariatric surgery is known as “metabolic surgery” when it is executed to control
diabetes. The term covers Roux-en-Y “gastric bypass” surgery, which trims down your
stomach to a small pouch and plugs it into the middle of the small intestine.
Is bariatric surgery worth it?
Recent studies prove that those who have bariatric surgery within five years of their diabetes
diagnosis have a high remission rate. Researchers see improvement with those who have it
later, but it’s not as spectacular. Because of this, it’s better to intervene when a patient is
healthier and the disease hasn’t progressed as far. Several clinical trials indicate that the
antidiabetic effect of bariatric surgery is long lasting. Normal levels of HbA1c after RYGBP
and long-term control of glycemia have been documented in several studies with up to 16
years of follow-up. There is now enough evidence to declare that bariatric surgery decrease
mortality in patients with diabetes. Therefore, bariatric surgery is being used worldwide to
treat type 2 diabetes in association with obesity, and increasingly among less obese or just
overweight patients. Overweight patients with type 1 diabetes also make good candidates for
Bariatric surgery - who is it for?
Bariatric surgery isn't for everyone. You have to meet certain medical guidelines to be
eligible for bariatric surgery and will have to undergo an extensive screening process to check if
you qualify. You must also be willing to make undeviating changes to lead a better lifestyle
and will be required to take part in long-term follow-up plans that include monitoring your
lifestyle, nutrition, performance and medical conditions. The essentials of the surgery depend
on your situation, severity of the disorder, the type of weight-loss specifications you
need and the hospital's or doctor's practices. The good news is researchers are optimistic
that they can find a new way to mimic the processes that lead to improvements for type 2
diabetics after bariatric surgery without actually doing the surgery.
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